K Sudesh Kumar, Professor
 /  K Sudesh Kumar, Professor

K Sudesh Kumar, Professor

B.Sc. (Hons), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
M.Biotech., Universiti Malaya
Ph.D., RIKEN Institute & Saitama University, Japan
Ext. 4367, ksudesh@usm.my


My main research interest is the design and biosynthesis of various types of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). In my lab, we isolate interesting microorganisms from tropical environment and evaluate their PHA-producing ability. We use renewable carbon sources such as the byproducts of the palm oil industry as feedstock for PHA production. In addition, we also look for novel enzymes involved in the PHA biosynthesis, especially PHA synthases. Besides isolating potential microorganisms, we also use culture-independent techniques such as metagenome analysis in order to identify novel enzymes. In order to improve the production of PHAs, we develop efficient fermentation processes and also PHA recovery/purification processes. The resulting PHAs are then used in various applications. We have extensive local and international collaborations. Our international collaborators include researchers from RIKEN, Tokyo University, Hokkaido University, Tokyo Institute of Technology, JIRCAS, Sultan Qaboos University, Lady Doak College, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, State University of New York, Lund University, Prince of Songkla University, Hanoi National University of Education, Tomsk State University, Fraunhofer Institute for Production Systems and Design Technology IPK, University of Massachusetts and Technical University of Berlin. Our local collaborators include researchers from SIRIM, UPM, UM, UiTM, IMU, UKM, UMS, UniMAP, UTAR and UPNM.
  • Molecular basis of PHA biosynthesis by Archaebacterial strains.
  • Establishing a network for the collection and reuse of used cooking oil (UCO).
  • Transfer of a simple, effective and sustainable technology to decolorize and detoxify Batik industry wasterwater: towards a greener Batik industry.
  • Evaluation of waste cooking oil as carbon source in biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA).
  • Metagenomics of rubber-degrading microorganisms in rubber plantation.
  • Formulation of bioplastics into controlled release fertiliser.
  • The development of the bioplastics production technology from old oil palm trunks sap.
  • Development of new bio-based polymeric materials using modified PHA synthases for a sustainable tomorrow.
  • Fraunhofer Institute for Production Systems and Design Technology IPK, Germany
  • Hanoi National University of Education
  • Hokkaido University, Japan
  • International Medical University (IMU), Malaysia
  • JIRCAS, Japan
  • Kaneka Corporation, Japan
  • Lady Doak College, India
  • Lund University, Sweden
  • Malaysian Institute of Pharmaceuticals and Nutraceuticals (IPharm)
  • Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA
  • National Defense University of Malaysia
  • Penfabric Sdn. Bhd.
  • Prince of Songkla University
  • Prince of Songkla University, Thailand
  • RIKEN Institute, Japan
  • SIRIM Berhad, Malaysia
  • State University of New York, USA
  • Sultan Qaboos University, Sultanate of Oman
  • Sumitomo Rubber Industries, Ltd, Japan
  • Technical University of Berlin, Germany
  • Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan
  • Tokyo University, Japan
  • Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
  • Universiti Malaysia Perlis
  • Universiti Malaysia Sabah
  • Universiti Putra Malaysia
  • Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Malaysia
  • Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman
  • University of Malaya
  • University of Massachusetts, USA
  • Tan, I. K. P., K. Sudesh Kumar, M. Theanmalar, S. N. Gan, and B. Gordon III. (1997) Saponified palm kernel oil and its major free fatty acids as carbon substrates for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates in Pseudomonas putida PGA1. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 47(3):207-211.
  • Sudesh, K., T. Fukui, and Y. Doi. (1998) Genetic analysis of Comamonas acidovorans polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase and factors affecting the incorporation of 4-hydroxybutyrate monomer. Appl. Environ. Microbial. 64(9):3437-3443.
  • Sudesh, K., T. Fukui, K. Taguchi, T. Iwata, and Y. Doi. (1999) Improved production of poly(4-hydroxybutyrate) by Comamonas acidovorans and its freeze-fracture morphology. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 25(1-3):79-85.
  • Sudesh, K., H. Abe and Y. Doi. (2000) Synthesis, structure and properties of polyhydroxyalkanoates: biological polyesters. Prog. Polym. Sci. 25(10):1503-1555.
  • Sudesh, K and Y. Doi. (2000) Molecular design and biosynthesis of biodegradable polyesters. Polym. Adv. Technol. 11(8-12):865-872.
  • Sudesh, K., T. Fukui, T. Iwata and Y. Doi. (2000) Factors affecting the freeze-fracture morphology of in vivo polyhydroxyalkanoate granules. Can. J. Microbiol. 46(4):304-311.
  • Sudesh, K., K. Taguchi and Y. Doi. (2001) Can cyanobacteria be a potential PHA producer? RIKEN Rev. No. 42:75-76.
  • Su, F., T. Iwata, K. Sudesh and Y. Doi. (2001) Electron and X-ray diffraction study on poly(4-hydroxybutyrate). Polymer. 42(21):8915-8918.
  • Sudesh, K., Z. Gan, A. Maehara, and Y. Doi. (2002) Surface structure, morphology and stability of polyhydroxyalkanoate inclusions characterised by atomic force microscopy. Polym. Degradation Stab. 77(1):77-85.
  • Sudesh, K., K. Taguchi and Y. Doi. (2002) Effect of increased PHA synthase activity on polyhydroxyalkanoates biosynthesis in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 30(2):97-104.
  • Sudesh, K, Z. Gan, K. Matsumoto and Y. Doi. (2002) Direct observation of polyhydroxyalkanoate chains by atomic force microscopy. Ultramicroscopy. 91(1-4):157-164.
  • Sudesh, K. (2004). Microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs): an emerging biomaterial for tissue engineering and therapeutic applications. Med. J. Malaysia. 59 Suppl. B:55-56.
  • Sudesh K, L. L. Few, M. N. M. Azizan, M. I. A. Majid, M. R. Samian and N. Najimudin. (2004) Biosynthesis and characterization of polyhydroxyalkanoate blends accumulated by Pseudomonas sp. USM 4-55. J. Biosci. 15(2):15-28.
  • Amirul, A. A, B. Y. Tay, C. W. Chang, M. N. M. Azizan, M. I. A. Majid and K. Sudesh. (2004) Biosynthesis and characterization of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) produced by an Alcaligenes sp. USM2-4 isolated from environmental samples. J. Biosci. 15(2):125-135.
  • Lee, W.-H., M. N. M. Azizan and K. Sudesh. (2004) Effects of culture conditions on the composition of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) synthesized by Comamonas acidovorans. Polym. Degradation Stab. 84(1):129-134.
  • Sudesh, K., A. Maehara, Z. Gan, T. Iwata and Y. Doi. (2004) Direct observation of polyhydroxyalkanoate granule-associated-proteins on native granules and on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) single crystals by atomic force microscopy. Polym. Degradation Stab. 83(2):281-287.
  • Yew, S. P, M. H. Jau, K. H. Yong, R. M. M. Abed and K. Sudesh. (2005) Morphological studies of Synechocystis sp. UNIWG under polyhydroxyalkanoate accumulating conditions. Mal. J. Microbiol. 1(1):48-52.
  • Kikkawa, Y., M. Narike, T. Hiraishi, M. Kanesato, K. Sudesh, Y. Doi, and T. Tsuge. (2005). Organization of polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase for in vitro polymerization as revealed by atomic force microscopy. Macromol. Biosci. 5(10):929-935.
  • Jau, M.-H., S.-P. Yew, P. S. Y. Toh, A. S. C. Chong, W.-L. Chu, S.-M. Phang, N. Najimudin, and K. Sudesh. (2005) Biosynthesis and mobilization of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)] by Spirulina platensis. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 36(3):144-151.
  • Hiraishi, T, Y. Kikkawa, M. Fujita, Y. M. Normi, M. Kanesato, T. Tsuge, K. Sudesh, M. Maeda, and Y. Doi. (2005) Atomic force microscopic observation of in vitro polymerized poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate]: insight into possible mechanism of PHB granule formation. Biomacromolecules. 6(5):2671-2677.
  • Normi, Y. M., T. Hiraishi, S. Taguchi, K. Sudesh, N. Najimudin and Y. Doi. (2005) Site-directed saturation mutagenesis at residue F420 and recombination with another beneficial mutation of Ralstonia eutropha polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase. Biotechnol. Lett. 27(10):705-712.
  • Normi, Y. M., T. Hiraishi, S. Taguchi, H. Abe, K. Sudesh, N. Najimudin and Y. Doi. (2005) Characterization and properties of G4X mutants of Ralstonia eutropha PHA synthase for poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. Macromol. Biosci. 5(3):197-206.
  • Loo, C.-Y., W.-H. Lee, T. Tsuge, Y. Doi and K. Sudesh. (2005) Biosynthesis and characterization of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) from palm oil products in a Wautersia eutropha mutant. Biotechnol. Lett. 27(18):1405-1410.
  • Yew, S.-P, H.-Y. Tang and K. Sudesh. (2006). Photocatalytic activity and biodegradation of polyhydroxybutyrate films containing titanium dioxide. Polym. Degradation Stab. 91(8):1800-1807.
  • Sridewi, N., K. Bhubalan and K. Sudesh. (2006) Degradation of commercially important polyhydroxyalkanoates in tropical mangrove ecosystem. Polym. Degradation Stab. 91(12):2931-2940.
  • Loo, C.-Y and K. Sudesh. (2007). Biosynthesis and native granule characteristics of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) in Delftia acidovorans. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 40(5):466-471.
  • Siew, E. L, N. F. Rajab, A. B. Osman, K. Sudesh and S. H. Inayat-Hussain. (2007). In vitro biocompatibility evaluation of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) copolymer in fibroblast cells. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. Part. A. 81(2):317-325.
  • Loo, C.-Y and K. Sudesh. (2007). Polyhydroxyalkanoates: Biobased microbial plastics and their properties. Mal. Polym. J. 2(2):31-57.
  • Sudesh, K., C.-Y. Loo, L.-K. Goh, T. Iwata and M. Maeda. (2007). The oil-absorbing property of polyhydroxyalkanoate films and its practical application: A refreashing new outlook for an old degrading material. Macromol. Biosci. 7(11): 1199-1205.
  • Lee, W. H., M. N. M. Azizan and K. Sudesh. (2007) Magnesium affects poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) content and composition by affecting glucose uptake in Delftia acidovorans. Mal. J. Microbiol. 3(1):31-34.
  • Amirul, A. A., A. R. M. Yahya, K. Sudesh, M. N. M. Azizan and M. I. A. Majid. (2008) Biosynthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) copolymer by Cupriavidus sp. USMAA1020 isolated from Lake Kulim, Malaysia. Bioresour. Technol. 99(11):4903-4909.
  • Ying, T. H., D. Ishii, A. Mahara, S. Murakami, T. Yamaoka, K. Sudesh, R. Samian, M. Fujita, M. Maeda and T. Iwata. (2008) Scaffolds from electrospun polyhydroxyalkanoate copolymers: fabrication, characterization, bioabsorption and tissue response. Biomaterials. 29(10):1307-1317.
  • Sudesh, K., B.-Y. Tay and C.-Y. Lee. (2008) Occurrence of poly(hydroxyalkanoate) in the gut homogenate of a phylogenetically higher termite: Macrotermes carbonarius. Can. J. Chem. 86(6):512-515.
  • Kek, Y.-K., W.-H. Lee and K. Sudesh. (2008) Efficient bioconversion of palm acid oil and palm kernel acid oil to poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) by Cupriavidus necator. Can. J. Chem. 86(6):533-539.
  • Toh, P. S. Y., M.-H. Jau, S.-P. Yew, R. M. M. Abed and K. Sudesh. (2008) Comparison of polyhydroxyalkanoates biosynthesis, mobilization and the effects on cellular morphology in Spirulina platensis and Synechocystis sp. UNIWG. J. Biosci. 19(2):21-38.
  • Lee, W.-H, C.-Y. Loo, C. T. Nomura and K. Sudesh. (2008) Biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoate copolymers from mixtures of plant oils and 3-hydroxyvalerate precursors. Bioresour. Technol. 99(15):6844-6851.
  • Bhubalan, K., W.-H. Lee, C.-Y. Loo, T. Yamamoto, T. Tsuge, Y. Doi and K. Sudesh. (2008) Controlled biosynthesis and characterization of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) from mixtures of palm kernel oil and 3HV-precursors. Polym. Degradation Stab. 93(1):17-23.
  • Sudesh, K., and T. Iwata. (2008) Sustainability of biobased and biodegradable plastics. Clean Soil Air Water. 36(5-6):433-442.
  • Sato, S., Y. Ono, Y. Mochiyama, E. Sivaniah, Y. Kikkawa, K. Sudesh, T. Hiraishi, Y. Doi, H. Abe, and T. Tsuge. (2008) Polyhydroxyalkanoate film formation and synthase activity during in vitro and in situ polymerization on hydrophobic surfaces. Biomacromolecules. 9(10):2811-2818.
  • Siew, E. L., N. F. Rajab, A. B. Osman, K. Sudesh, and S. H. Inayat-Hussain. (2009) Mutagenic and clastogenic characterization of poststerilized poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) copolymer biosynthesized by Delftia acidovorans. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. Part A. 91(3): 786-794.
  • Abed, R.M.M., S. Dobretsov and K. Sudesh. (2009) Applications of cyanobacteria in biotechnology. J. Appl. Microbiol. 106(1):1-12.
  • Vigneswary, S., S. Vijaya, M. I. A. Majid, K. Sudesh, C. S. Sipaut, M. N. M. Azizan, A. A. Amirul. (2009) Enhanced production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) copolymer with manipulated variables and its properties. J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 36(4):547-556.
  • Amirul, A. A., A. R. M. Yahya, K. Sudesh, M. N. M. Azizan and M. I. A. Majid. (2009) Isolation of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) producer from Malaysian environment using ?-butyrolactone as carbon source. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 25(7):1199-1206.
  • Ng, W.-K., C.-B. Koh, K. Sudesh and A. Siti-Zahrah. (2009) Effects of dietary organic acids on growth, nutrient digestibility and gut microflora of red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis sp., and subsequent survival during a challenge test with Streptococcus agalactiae. Aquac. Res. 40(13):1490-1500.
  • Arsad, H., K. Sudesh, N. Najimudin, T. S. Tengku Muhammad, H. Wahab and M. R. Samian. (2009) Cloning and characterisation of (R)-3-hydroxyacyl-acyl carrier protein coenzyme A transferase gene (phaG) from Pseudomonas sp. USM 4-55. Trop. Life Sci. Res. 20(2):1-14.
  • Tan, Y., P.-C. Neo, N. Najimudin, K. Sudesh, T. S. T. Muhammad, A. S. Othman and R. Samian. (2010) Cloning and characterization of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) biosynthesis genes from Pseudomonas sp. USM 4-55. J. Basic Microbiol. 50(2):179-189.
  • Toh, P. S. Y., S.-P. Yew, K.-H. Yong, K. Sudesh and R. M. M. Abed. (2010) Phototactic motility of Synechocystis sp. UNIWG (Cyanobacteria) from brakish environment. J. Phycol. 46(1):102-111.
  • Tay, B.-Y., B. E. Lokesh, C.-Y. Lee and K. Sudesh. (2010) Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) accumulating bacteria from the gut of higher termite Macrotermes carbonarius  (Blattodea: Termitidae). World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 26(6):1015-1024.
  • Bhubalan, K., D.-N. Rathi, H. Abe, T. Iwata and K. Sudesh. (2010) Improved synthesis of P(3HB-co-3HV-co-3HHx) terpolymers by mutant Cupriavidus necator using the PHA synthase gene of Chromobacterium sp. USM2 with high affinity towards 3HV. Polym. Degradation Stab. 95(8):1436-1442.
  • Ng, K.-S., W.-Y. Ooi, L.-K. Goh, R. Shenbagarathai and K. Sudesh. (2010) Evaluation of jatropha oil to produce poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) by Cupriavidus necator H16. Polym. Degrad. Stab. 95(8):1365-1369.
  • Bhubalan, K., Y. C. Kam, K. H. Yong and K. Sudesh. (2010) Cloning and expression of the PHA synthase gene from a locally isolated Chromobacterium sp. USM2. Mal. J. Microbiol. 6(1):81-90.
  • Kek, Y.-K., C.-W. Chang, A.-A. Amirul and K. Sudesh. (2010) Heterologous expression of Cupriavidus sp. USMAA2-4 PHA synthase gene in PHB¯4 mutant for the production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) and its copolymers. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 26(9):1595–1603.
  • Chee, J.-Y., Y. Tan, M.-R. Samian and K. Sudesh. (2010) Isolation and characterization of a Burkholderia sp. USM (JCM15050) capable of producing polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) from tryglycerides, fatty acids and glycerols. J. Polym. Environ. 18(4):584–592.
  • Lau, N.-S., J.-Y. Chee, T. Tsuge and K. Sudesh. (2010) Biosynthesis and mobilization of a novel polyhydroxyalkanoate containing 3-hydroxy-4-methylvalerate monomer produced by Burkholderia sp. USM (JCM15050). Bioresour. Technol. 101(20):7916-7923.
  • Chia, K.-H., T.-F. Ooi, A. Saika, T. Tsuge and K. Sudesh. (2010) Biosynthesis and characterization of novel polyhydroxyalkanoate polymers with high elastic property by Cupriavidus necator PHB¯4 transformant. Polym. Degradation Stab. 95(12):2226-2232.
  • Ong, Y. T., A. L. Ahmad, S. H. S. Zein, K. Sudesh and S. H. Tan. (2011) Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)-functionalised multi-walled carbon nanotubes/chitosan green nanocomposite membranes and their application in pervaporation. Sep. Purif. Technol. 76(3):419-427.
  • Sridewi, N., L.-T. Tan and K. Sudesh. (2011) Solar photocatalytic decolorization and detoxification of industrial Batik dye wastewater using P(3HB)-TiO2 nanocomposite films. Clean Soil Air Water. 39(3):265-273.
  • Lau, N.-S., T. Tsuge and K. Sudesh. (2011) Formation of new polyhydroxyalkanoate containing 3-hydroxy-4-methylvalerate monomer in Burkholderia sp. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 89(5):1599-1609.
  • Sudesh, K., K. Bhubalan, J.-A. Chuah, Y.-K. Kek, H. Kamilah, N. Sridewi and Y.-F. Lee. (2011) Synthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoate from palm oil and some new applications. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 89(5):1373-1386.
  • Pan, P., M. Fujita, W.-Y. Ooi, K. Sudesh, T. Takarada, A. Goto and M. Maeda. (2011) DNA-functionalized thermoresponsive bioconjugates synthesized via ATRP and click chemistry. Polymer. 52(4):895-900.
  • Bhubalan, K., J.-A. Chuah, F. Shozui, C. J. Brigham, S. Taguchi, A. J. Sinskey, C. Rha and K. Sudesh. (2011) Characterization of the highly active polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase of Chromobacterium sp. strain USM2. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 77(9):2926-2933.
  • Kunasundari, B. and K. Sudesh. (2011) Isolation and recovery of microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates. Express Polym. Lett. 5(7):620-634.
  • Ng, K.-S., Y.-M. Wong, T. Tsuge and K. Sudesh. (2011) Biosynthesis and characterization of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) copolymers using jatropha oil as the main carbon source. Process Biochem. 46(8):1572-1578.
  • Saika, A., Y. Watanabe, K. Sudesh, H. Abe and T. Tsuge. (2011) Enhanced incorporation of 3-hydroxy-4-methylvalerate unit into biosynthetic polyhydroxyalkanoate using leucine as a precursor. AMB Express. 1:6 doi: 10.1186/2191-0855-1-6
  • Sridewi, N., Y.-F. Lee and K. Sudesh. (2011) Simultaneous adsorption and photocatalytic degradation of malachite green using electrospun P(3HB)-TiO2 nanocomposite fibers and films. Int. J. Photoenergy. Art. No. 597854 doi: 10.1155/2011/597854
  • Ling, S. C., T. Tsuge and K. Sudesh. (2011) Biosynthesis of novel polyhydroxyalkanoate containing 3-hydroxy-4-methylvalerate by Chromobacterium sp. USM2. J. Appl. Microbiol. 111(3):559-571.
  • Chee, J.-Y., N.-S. Lau, M.-R. Samian, T. Tsuge and K. Sudesh. (2012) Expression of Aeromonas caviae polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase gene in Burkholderia sp. USM (JCM 15050) enables the biosynthesis of SCL-MCL PHA from palm oil products. J. Appl. Microbiol. 112(1):45–54.
  • Tan, H.-H., A. Makino, K. Sudesh, P. Greimel and T. Kobayashi. (2012) Spectroscopic evidence for the unusual stereochemical configuration of an endosome-specific lipid. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 51(2):533-535.
  • Hiraishi, T., K. Yamashita, M. Sakono, J. Nakanishi, L.-T. Tan, K. Sudesh, H. Abe, and M. Maeda. (2012) Display of functionally active PHB depolymerase on Escherichia coli cell surface. Macromol. Biosci. 12(2):218-224.
  • Lokesh, B. E., Z. A. A. Hamid, T. Arai, A. Kosugi, Y. Murata, R. Hashim, O. Sulaiman, Y. Mori and K. Sudesh. (2012) Potential of oil palm trunk sap as a novel inexpensive renewable carbon feedstock for polyhydroxyalkanoate biosynthesis and as a bacterial growth medium. Clean Soil Air Water. 40(3):310-317.
  • Baskaran, M., R. Hashim, N. Said, S. M. Raffi, K. Balakrishnan, K. Sudesh, O. Sulaiman, T. Arai, A. Kosugi, Y. Mori, T. Sugimoto and M. Sato. (2012) Properties of binderless particleboard from oil palm trunk with addition of polyhydroxyalkanoates. Compos Part B: Eng. 43(3):1109–1116.
  • Yee, L.-N., J.-A. Chuah, M.-L. Chong, L.-Y. Phang, A.R. Raha, K. Sudesh and M.A. Hassan. (2012) Molecular characterisation of phaCAB from Comamonas sp. EB172 for functional expression in Escherichia coli JM109. Microbiol. Res. 167(9):550-557.
  • Ooi, W.-Y., M. Fujita, P. Pan, H.-Y. Tang, K. Sudesh, K. Ito, N. Kanayama, T. Takarada, M. Maeda. (2012) Structural characterization of nanoparticles from thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-DNA conjugate. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 374(1):315-320.
  • Phua, Y. J., N. S. Lau, K. Sudesh, W. S. Chow and Z. A. Mohd Ishak. (2012) Biodegradability studies of poly(butylene succinate)/ organo-montmorillonite nanocomposites under controlled compost soil conditions: effects of clay loading and compatibiliser. Polym. Degrad. Stabil. 97(8):1345-1354.
  • Wong, Y.-M., C. J. Brigham, C. Rha, A. J. Sinskey and K. Sudesh. (2012) Biosynthesis and characterization of polyhydroxyalkanoate containing high 3-hydroxyhexanoate monomer fraction from crude palm kernel oil by recombinant Cupriavidus necator. Bioresour. Technol. 121:320-327.
  • Anis, S. N. S., M. I. Nurhezreen, K. Sudesh and A. A. Amirul. (2012) Enhanced recovery and purification of P(3HB-co-3HHx) from recombinant Cupriavidus necator using alkaline digestion method. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 167(3):524-535.
  • Lau, N.-S. and K. Sudesh. (2012) Revelation of the ability of Burkholderia sp. USM (JCM 15050) PHA synthase to polymerize 4-hydroxybutyrate monomer. AMB Express. 2(1):1-13.
  • Ch’ng, D.H.-E., W.-H. Lee and K. Sudesh. (2012) Biosynthesis and lipase-catalysed hydrolysis of 4-hydroxybutyrate-containing polyhydroxyalkanoates from Delftia acidovorans. Mal. J. Microbiol. 8(3):156-163.
  • Pan, P., M. Fujita, W.-Y. Ooi, K. Sudesh, T. Takarada, A. Goto and M. Maeda. (2012) Thermoresponsive micellization and micellar stability of poly(Nisopropylacrylamide)bDNA diblock and miktoarm star polymers. Langmuir. 28(40): 14347-14356.
  • Haque R. A., S. Budagumpi, S. Y. Choo, M. K. Choong, B. E. Lokesh and K. Sudesh. (2012) Nitrile-functionalized Hg(II)- and Ag(I)-N-heterocyclic carbene complexes: synthesis, crystal structures, nuclease and DNA binding activities. Appl. Organomet. Chem. 26:689-700.
  • Rathi D.-N., H. G. Amir, R. M. M. Abed, A. Kosugi, T. Arai, O. Sulaiman, R. Hashim and K. Sudesh. (2012) Polyhydroxyalkanoate biosynthesis and simplified polymer recovery by a novel moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from hypersaline microbial mats. J. Appl. Microbiol. 114(2):384-395.
  • Prawitwong P., A. Kosugi, T. Arai, L. Deng, K. C. Lee, D. Ibrahim, Y. Murata, O. Sulaiman, R. Hashim, K. Sudesh, W. A. B. Ibrahim, M. Saito and Y. Mori. (2012) Efficient ethanol production from separated parenchyma and vascular bundle of oil palm trunk. Bioresour. Technol. 125:37-42.
  • Tan, L.-T., T. Hiraishi, K. Sudesh and M. Maeda. (2013) Directed evolution of poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] depolymerase using cell surface display system: functional importance of asparagine at position 285. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 97:4859-4871.
  • Hassan M. A., L.-N. Yee, P. L. Yee, H. Ariffin, A. R. Raha, Y. Shirai and K. Sudesh. (2013) Sustainable production of polyhydroxyalkanoates from renewable oil-palm biomass. Biomass Bioenerg. 50:1-9.
  • Lakshmanan, M., Y. Kodama, T. Yoshizumi, K. Sudesh and K. Numata. (2013) Rapid and efficient gene delivery into plant cells using designed peptide carriers. Biomacromolecules. 14(1):10-16.
  • Chuah J.-A., M. Yamada, S. Taguchi, K. Sudesh, Y. Doi and K. Numata. (2013) Biosynthesis and characterization of polyhydroxyalkanoate containing 5-hydroxyvalerate units: Effects of 5HV units on biodegradability, cytotoxicity, mechanical and thermal properties. Polym. Degrad. Stab. 98(1):331-338.
  • Anis, S. N. S., M. I. Nurhezreen, K. Sudesh and A. A. Amirul. (2013) Increased recovery and improved purity of PHA from recombinant Cupriavidus necator. Bioengineered 4(2):1–4.
  • Anis, S. N. S., M. I. Nurhezreen, K. Sudesh and A. A. Amirul. (2013) Effect of different recovery strategies of P(3HB-co-3HHx) copolymer from Cupriavidus necator recombinant harboring the PHA synthase of Chromobacterium sp. USM2. Sep. Purif. Technol. 102(2013):111–117.
  • Chuah, J.-A., S. Tomizawa, M. Yamada, T. Tsuge, Y. Doi, K. Sudesh and K. Numata. (2013) Characterization of site-specific mutations in a short-chain-length-medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase: in vivo and in vitro studies on enzymatic activity and substrate specificity. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 79(12):3813-3821
  • Abed R. M. M., S. Dobretsov, M. Al-Fori, S. P. Gunasekera, K. Sudesh, V. J. Paul. (2013) Quorum sensing inhibitory compounds from extremophilic microorganisms isolated from a hypersaline cyanobacterial mat. J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 40(7):759-772.
  • Ch’ng, D.H.-E. and K. Sudesh. (2013) Densitometry based microassay for the determination of lipase depolymerizing activity on polyhydroxyalkanoate. AMB Express 3:22-33.
  • Kunasundari, B., V. Murugaiyah, G. Kaur, F.H.J. Maurer, K. Sudesh. (2013) Revisiting the single cell protein application of Cupriavidus necator H16 and recovering bioplastic granules simultaneously. PLOS ONE. 8(10):e78528.
  • Rathi, D.-N., E.P. Jutemar, F.H.J. Maurer, K. Sudesh. (2013) Biosynthesis of P(3HB-co-3HV-co-3HHp) terpolymer by Cupriavidus necator PHB-4 transformant harboring the highly active PHA synthase gene of Chromobacterium sp. USM2. Mal. J. Microbiol. 9(2):140-146.
  • Goh, L.-K., R.K. Purama, K. Sudesh. (2014) Enhancement of stress tolerance in the polyhydroxyalkanoate producers without mobilization of the accumulated granules. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 172(3):1585–1598.
  • Abdul Khalil, H.P.S., Y. Davoudpour, M.N. Islam, A. Mustapha, K. Sudesh, R. Dungani, M. Jawaid. (2014) Production and modification of nanofibrillated cellulose using various mechanical processed: A review. Carbohydr. Polym. 99:649-665.
  • Saika, A., Y., Watanabe, K. Sudesh, T.Tsuge. (2014)  Biosynthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxy-4-methylvalerate) by recombinant Escherichia coli expressing leucine metabolism-related enzymes derived from Clostridium difficile. J. Biosci. Bioeng. 117(6):670-675.
  • Lau, N.-S., C.P. Foong, Y. Kurihara, K. Sudesh, M. Matsui. (2014) RNA-Seq analysis provides insights for understanding photoautotrophic polyhydroxyalkanoate production in recombinant Synechocystis sp. PLOS ONE. 9(1):e86368.
  • Chow, W.S., S.G. Tan, Z. Ahmad, K.H. Chia, N.S. Lau, K. Sudesh. (2014) Biodegradability of epoxidized soybean oil based thermosets in compost soil environment. J. Polym. Environ. 22(1):140-147.
  • Tan, L.-T., T. Hiraishi, K. Sudesh, M. Maeda. (2014) Effects of mutation at position 285 of Ralstonia pickettii poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] depolymerase on its activities. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 98(16):7061-7068.
  • Lau, N.-S., D.H.-E. Ch’ng, K.H. Chia, Y.M. Wong, K. Sudesh. (2014) Advances in polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA): unraveling the development and new perspectives. J. Biobased Mat. Bioenergy. 8(2):118-129.
  • Salim, Y.S., C.H. Chan, K. Sudesh, S.N. Gan. (2014) Isothermal crystallisation kinetics of microbial poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate). Int. J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci. 6:3-8.
  • Kamilah, H., K. Sudesh, T.A. Yang. (2014) Characteristics of used palm olein and its bioconversion into polyhydroxybutyrate by Cupriavidus necator H16. Mal. J. Microbiol. 10(2):139-148.
  • Chia, K.-H., J. Nanthini, G.P. Thottathil, N. Najimudin, M.R. Hakim Mas Haris, K. Sudesh. (2014) Identification of new rubber-degrading bacterial strains from aged latex. Polym. Degrad. Stab. 109:354-361.
  • Foong, C. P., N. S. Lau, S. Deguchi, T. Toyofuku, T. D. Taylor, K. Sudesh, M. Matsui. (2014) Whole genome amplification approach reveals novel polyhydroxyalkanoate synthases (PhaCs) from Japan trench and nankai trough seawater. BMC Microbiology. 14: 318.
  • Wong, Y. M., Y. Hoshino, K. Sudesh, Y. Miura, K.Numata. (2015) Optimization of poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) as an artificial amidase. Biomacromolecules. 16(1):411-21.
  • Lakshmanan, M., T. Yoshizumi, K. Sudesh, Y. Kodama, K. Numata. (2015) Double-stranded DNA introduction into intact plants using peptide–DNA complexes. Plant Biotechnol. 32(1): 39-45.
  • Phua, Y. J., N. S. Lau, K. Sudesh, W. S. Chow, Z. M. Ishak. (2015) A study on the effects of organoclay content and compatibilizer addition on the properties of biodegradable poly (butylene succinate) nanocomposites under natural weathering. J. Compos. Mater. 49: 891-902.
  • Paramasivam, M., P. Chhajer, A. Kosugi, T. Arai, C. J. Brigham, K. Sudesh. (2016) Production of P(3HB-co-3HHx) with Controlled Compositions by Recombinant Cupriavidus necator Re2058/pCB113 from Renewable Resources. Clean Soil Air Water. In press.
  • Heng, K.-S., R. Hatti-Kaul, F. Adam, T. Fukui, K. Sudesh. (2016) Conversion of rice husks to polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) via a three-step process: optimized alkaline pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and biosynthesis by Burkholderia cepacia USM (JCM 15050). J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol. In press
  • Ng, L.-M., K. Sudesh. (2016) Identification of a new polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) producer Aquitalea sp. USM4 (JCM 19919) and characterization of its PHA synthase. J. Biosci. Bioeng. In press
  • Chanasit, W., B. Hodgson, K. Sudesh, K. Umsakul. (2016) Efficient production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) from Pseudomonas mendocina PSU using a biodiesel liquid waste (BLW) as the sole carbon source. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 80 (7):1440-1450.
  • Phong, T. H., D. V. Thuoc, K. Sudesh. (2016) Biosynthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) and its copolymers by Yangia sp. ND199 from different carbon sources. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 84: 361-366.
  • Tai, Y. T., N. Najimudin and K. Sudesh. (2015) Characteristics of limestone soil collected from Gunung Lang, Perak and metagenomic analysis of the soil microbial community. Mal. J. Microbiol. 11(4): 372-381.
  • Lee, Y.-F., N. Sridewi, S. Ramanathan, K. Sudesh. (2015) The influence of electrospinning parameters and drug loading on polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) nanofibers for drug delivery. Int. J. Biotech. Well. Indus. 4: 103-113.
  • Tai, Y. T., C. P. Foong, N. Najimudin, K. Sudesh. (2015) Discovery of a new polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase from limestone soil through metagenomic approach. J. Biosci. Bioeng. 121: 355-364.
  • Joyyi, L., N. Sridewi, A. A. A. Abdullah, K. I. Kasuya, K. Sudesh. (2015) Fabrication and Degradation of Electrospun Polyhydroxyalkanoate Film. J. Siberian Fed. U. 8: 236-253.
  • Nanthini, J., K.-H. Chia, G. P. Thottathil, T. D. Taylor, S. Kondo, N. Najimudin, P. Baybayan, S. Singh, and K. Sudesh. (2015) Complete genome sequence ofStreptomyces sp. strain CFMR 7, a natural rubber degrading Actinomycetesisolated from Penang, MalaysiaJ. Biotechnol. 214: 47-48.
Books/ Journals
  • Sudesh, K. and H. Abe. (2010) Practical Guide to Microbial Polyhydroxyalkanoates. Smithers Rapra. UK. pp. 1-149.
  • Sudesh, K. (2013) Polyhydroxyalkanoates from Palm Oil: Biodegradable Plastics. Springer Briefs in Microbiology. Germany. pp. 1-130.
Book Chapters
  • Taguchi, K., S. Taguchi, K. Sudesh, A. Maehara, T. Tsuge and Y. Doi. (2001) Metabolic pathways and engineering of PHA biosynthesis. In Biopolymer Handbook. Y. Doi and A. Steinbüchel (eds). Wiley-VCH. pp. 217-247.
  • Ibrahim C. O, N. Najimudin and K. Sudesh. (2004) Bioresource Technologies: Industrial Biotechnology. In Research at Universiti Sains Malaysia: Biotechnology (Vol. 2). A. Ismail, M. I. A. Majid, N. Najimudin (eds.) K. J. Ratnam (series ed.) Penerbit USM. pp. 53-59.
  • Sudesh, K and Y. Doi. (2005) Polyhydroxyalkanoates. In Handbook of Biodegradable Polymers. C. Bastioli (ed.) RAPRA Technology Ltd., UK. pp. 219-256.
  • Ghani, B. Ab., N. Najimudin, M. R. Samian and K. Sudesh. (2006) Investigation on the reaction mechanism of a polymerase enzyme: determination of the 3-D structure of polyhydroxyalkanoic acid synthase. In Fundamental Research at USM 2002-2005. A. A. Tajuddin and K. O. Lim (eds). Vol. 2 (Life Sciences). USM Publishers. pp. 97-102.
  • Sudesh, K., C. W. Chang, J. Y. Chee, L. K. Goh, M. H. Jau, W. H. Lee, B. Y. Tay, S. Y. Toh, S. P. Yew, K. H. Yong, M. R. Samian and M. I. A. Majid. (2006) Microstructure of polyhydroxyalkanoate granules. In Fundamental Research at USM 2002-2005. A. A. Tajuddin and K. O. Lim (eds). Vol. 2 (Life Sciences). USM Publishers. pp. 28-33.
  • Ibrahim, C. O., A. Rosma, I. Darah and K. Sudesh. (2007) Utilization of the Malaysian agrowaste resources for the generation of value added products via biotechnological processes. In Current Topics on Bioprocesses in Food Industry. A. Koutinas. A. Pandey and C. Larroche (eds.) Asiatech Publishers Inc. India.
  • Abdullah, A. A., A. R. M. Yahya, K. Sudesh, M. N. M. Azizan, and M. I. A. Majid. (2009) Microbial synthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) by Cupriavidus sp. USMAA1020 isolated from Malaysian environment. In Innovations in Chemical Biology. B. Sener (ed.) Springer Science+Business Media B. V.
  • Tang, H. Y., D. Ishii, K. Sudesh, T. Yamaoka, and T. Iwata (2010) Nanofibrous Scaffolds of Bio-polyesters: In vitro and In vivo Characterizations and Tissue Response. In Nanofibers. A. Kumar (ed). Intech (Croatia). pp. 189-212.
  • Chee, J. Y., S. S. Yoga, N. S. Lau, S. C. Ling, R. M. M. Abed and K. Sudesh (2010) Bacterially Produced Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA): Converting Renewable Resources into Bioplastics. In Current Research, Technology and Education Topics in Applied Microbiology and Microbial Biotechnology. A. M. Vilas (ed). Formatex Research Center (Spain). pp. 1395-1404.
  • Bhubalan, K., J. Y. Chee and K. Sudesh. (2011) Prospect and Sustainable Production of Polyhydroxyalkanoate from Palm Oil. In Bioprocess Sciences and Technology. M. T. Liong (Ed.). Nova Science Publishers (NY, USA). pp. 53-82
  • Bhubalan, K., W. H. Lee and K. Sudesh. (2011) Polyhydroxyalkanoate. In Biodegradable Polymers in Clinical Use and Clinical Development. A. J. Domb, N. Kumar and A. Ezra (Eds.). John Wiley & Sons (USA). pp. 249-315.
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