The School of Biological Sciences has been actively conducting research on mosquitoes and urban insect pests since 1972. Special attention was given to mosquito species which are vectors of many dreaded diseases of mankind such as dengue, filariasis, malaria and Japanese encephalitis. Due to the growing importance and awareness of crawling insect pests in the country in recent years, research has expanded to include studies in urban entomology, particularly on cockroaches, termites and household ants. Molecular and biochemical research on some of these pest species has also been initiated. Since 1975, basic and applied researches on vector and urban pest control at the School of Biological Sciences has received more than 100 research grants totaling more than US$7 million from governmental and international organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO) and multinational pesticide industries. In recognition of the research and training activities, the university established Vector Control Research Unit under School of Biological Sciences in 1991 to further consolidate and enhance the research potential in this field. The unit is currently housed in a 3½-storey building with a strong workforce of both permanent and project staff of 8 research officers and assistants, 10 laboratory assistant, 20 post graduate students, as well as various facilities for conducting both laboratory and field research. With its strong productivity in scientific publications, services, postgraduate students outputs, the unit is recognized as one of the leading research facilities for vector and urban pest control studies in the Asia-Pacific region.